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Aerospace is the science or engineering of flying vehicles operating within the Earth atmosphere or in the outer space.Aerospace encompasses the design, development, manufacturing and research on all types of flying vehicles be it aircrafts, helicopters, spacecrafts, rockets, space crafts, satellites, space launch vehicles, space probes, re-entry vehicles, ballistic missiles, guided weapons, smart munitions, UAVs and more. Aerospace has become a very advance and high tech industry and aerospace is at the cutting edge of science and engineering. Aerospace industry designs, develops, manufactures, operates and maintain all flying vehicles in the sky. Furthermore, many space programs around the world uses the knowledge and expertise of aerospace industry to design and develop rockets and space launch vehicles, interplanetary probes, satellites, mars and lunar vehicles and more. Aerospace has also vast applications in the field of automotive design and engineering, piping, thermal analysis, structural analysis, flow analysis and more.
Aerospace is an advanced and diverse field with many applications in civilian and government, public and private sector industries. Most of the aerospace industry is based on cooperation of both the public and the private sector aerospace industries. Many aerospace companies from around the world manufacture and design products for the defense and government sector.
Space Program of United States
Many countries from around the world have different space programs as well. In the United States for example, the NASA is responsible for all space program activities of the United States, NASA different research center like NASA Ames and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Kennedy and Johnson air flight center are extensively involved in different space programs. NASA is credited with landing the man on the moon and has successively sent both interplanetary probes like the Voyager -1 and Voyager-2. Similarly, recently NASA sent the Phoenix Mars Lander to find water on the surface of mars. Similarly, NASA has sent the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Rovers as well. NASA operates the hugely critical and the only re-usable flying vehicles the Space Shuttle to carry cargo and payload into space. NASA from the United States along with many other countries are building the International Space Station which is to replace the old Mir Space Station of Russia and to permanently place a man in space. Similarly, like NASA of the United States many other countries also have space programs.
Space Program of Russia
The Russian (former Soviet Union) are not new to Aerospace. The Russians have been in the forefront of space exploration since the past 50 years. The RKA is the space agency of Russia which looks after the Russian space program. The Russians are credited for launching the first artificial satellite in orbit the Sputnik. Similarly, Russian Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space and to orbit the earth. The Russian also built the Mir space station which was a permanent facility in space before ISS in space for carrying out experiments in space. Russian rockets also carry cargo and equipment to the International Space Station. Furthermore, Russian rockets have also carried tourists into space so founding the space tourism industry. The space tourism has become popular as people with huge sums of money are willing to pay to see space and see Earth from the ISS. Both Russia and the United States are the big power house of the aerospace industry. The rivalry between the two countries and the Cold war has boosted the growth and development in the aerospace industry. But Europe, China, Canada, Japan, Pakistan and India are not leaving behind and have very active space programs and high dreams.
Space Program of Europe
The ESA or the European Space Agency is the prime space program operated by the EU or the European Union. Comprises Europe giants like France, Germany and United Kingdom the ESA is heavily involved in space programs. The Europeans operate the most successful commercial satellite launch program in the world using the Arian Space Rockets. Like the Delta rockets of Boeing the Arian rockets are use to carry different satellites into space. Furthermore, the European space agency is also looking forward to develop its own Global positioning system which is to be called Galileo. Unlike the GPS or Navstar of the United States, the Galileo GPS system is to offered for commercial usage. The Europe Space program has also high ambitions for future missions to mars and moon.
Space Program of China
Like in every other field China’s growth has become unstoppable. China is rapidly growing its space program during the past few decades. As a result, China has become the third nation to send a man into space using its indigenous space program. Although, the Chinese use many Russian equipment and expertise Chinese have become quite experience in the use of rocket science and rocketry. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is responsible for all space program activity in China. China is also planning to land a man on the moon by 2020 starting a new space race to land a man on the moon. United States is also planning to send a man on the moon by 2018.
Space Program of Canada
The Canadian Aerospace sector is vibrant and with many companies operating in both the public and the private sector. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is responsible for all space activities in Canada. The fact that many Canadian engineers went to the United States in the development of the Apollo program shows the extensive capability of the Canadians in the field of aerospace. The Canadian Space Agency is also involved in the development of the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadian Space Agency has developed the robotic arm which is used to repair parts of the ISS and also to move different cargo.
Space Program of Japan
Japan has also high ambitions in space. Japan Space Agency known as JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) is responsible for all space activities of Japan. Japan has successfully developed SLV systems. Although they have met with a few challenges in the process and few failures, Japanese seem to have high ambitions to further enhance the space exploration. With the high tech industry of Japan and the trained workforce, it is not unlikely that with financial backing of the Japanese government that Japan may become a major powerhouse in the field of space exploration.
Space Program of Pakistan
Pakistan is also developing a vast and vibrant space program. Pakistan space agency SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission) is involved in the development of a double stage solid fuelled propelled SLV or space launch vehicle. NESCOM (National Engineering and Scientific Commission), NDC (National Development Complex) and PMO (Project Management Organization) are also extensively involved in different space program projects. The Pakistan SLV project is to be undertaken jointly by SUPARCO, NESCOM, NDC and PMO. New facilities are being established for the development of both satellites and rocket system. Satellite Research and Development Sectors (SRDC) has also being established in different countries. Pakistan plans to send indigenously developed satellite PAKSAT-1R in two years followed by four other satellites. Pakistan has been extensively involved in space program from the 1960’s. SUPARCO has worked with NASA on Rehbar-1 sounding rocket program (Nike Cajun). Also, Pakistan was among the first countries in Asia to start a space program.
Space Program of India
The Indians have huge space ambitions. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is responsible for all space activities and the space program of India. The ISRO operates and launch satellites into orbit. India has received huge support in terms of rocket science, engineering, rocket manufacturing from Russia. Russian rocket systems are being used on Indian rockets to carry satellites into space. The Russian cooperation in the aerospace sector and the space sector of India has enabled it to develop a vast space program. The Indian Space Research Organization is also planning to set an orbiter to the moon. The project has been named Chaandrayan (moon craft).
Space Program of Africa
In Africa, it seems as though Egypt and South Africa are two countries how possibly might have space agendas. Although, none seem to have a space program or space agency in place at the moment which plans to develop rockets and space vehicles, the South Africans have developed an indigenous satellite the SUNSAT.
Space Program of Rest of the World
Many other countries especially many European countries like Italy, Sweden, Spain are also heavily involved in the space sector. Although, these countries haven’t got there own space program they provide critical parts, services and manufacture many critical and important parts of space vehicles and space systems.
The history of
flight is the history of aerospace. Since, time immemorial it was the
urge of man to fly. In different cultures, different myths were there
about the moon and stars. Man always wanted to capture the final
frontier of space. But it took many hundred of years to understand the
principles of flight. With the first successful heavier than air flight
of the Wright Brothers on December 16, 1903, aerospace just took off.
With the immense and rapid development of aerospace in the last hundred
years, man has been capable to land on the moon using the Apollo
program, successfully navigated the solar system by using the Voyager
deep space probes, land rovers on the surface of the Mars. Everyday,
thousands of people travel to many hundred of destinations all across
the globe. It is worthwhile to notice that the commercial jet travel
just started 50 years ago.
present Aerospace sector is vast, exciting and immense this was not
always the case. For, many hundreds of year man thought that human
flight was impossible. Many great minds look to find the solution of
heavier than air flight. Leonardo Di Vinci drew drawings of an
ornithopter a machine that supposedly could fly. Sir. George Cayley is
credited with the design of the first modern airplane in the 19th century.
In France, in the 18th century
a major breakthrough happened with the development of the Hot air
balloon. This enabled humans to fly although the hot air balloons were
difficult to control in flight. In the 20th century
with the development of steam and diesel engines, the heavier than
flight challenge just took off. Many great minds from Russia, France and
United States attempted to achieve heavier than air flight but it was
Olivier and Wilbur Wrights who were able to achieve heavier than air
flight on the Wright Flyer. The historic flight lasted only 12 seconds
and it is interesting to note that the entire flight of the Wright flyer
can be taken in the economy section of the Boeing 747 jumbo jet. After,
the successful Wright brother flight, first wood and cloth airplanes
came about. Then the development of all metal airplanes started in the
Second World War. After Second World War, in 1947 the Sound barrier was
broken and cleaned the way for the development of jet airplanes and
aircrafts. This was also the time of the dawn of the space race with two
aerospace giants fighting there way to land a man on the moon, the
United States and the Soviet Union. Eventually, United States won the
challenge and landed a man on the moon in 1969 using the Apollo 11
rocket. Neil Armstrong became the first man to land on the surface of
the moon. Since, then many space exploration projects have taken place
including the development of the Mir Space Station, International Space
Station (ISS), and Hubble Space Telescope.
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